‘Connecting the dots’ for quantum networks Explore further Recently, some approaches have suggested “rediscovering” old techniques such as analog computing, which usually lie outside the usual qubit architecture, in the hope of finding new pathways to experimentally realize quantum computation. For instance, using analog techniques and the quantum properties of atomic clusters called Bose-Einstein condensates, a team of researchers from Japan has recently improved upon a classical factoring algorithm.“Any algorithm where the output is continuous rather than divided into bits (as on a digital computer) is analog,” Mark Sadgrove of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JSTA) told PhysOrg.com. “In our case, we measure quantities which are continuous in principle. By this I mean that the energy or the probability to find an atom with a given momentum are continuous variables, in theory. In practice, we use a finite number of atoms, so in some sense the final outputs are discrete, but theoretically the result of the computation is analog in nature.”Sadgrove and his colleagues Sanjay Kumar of the University of Electro Communications (UEC) in Chofushi, Chofugaoka, and Ken’ichi Nakagawa, who has affiliations with both JSTA and UEC, have demonstrated that, compared with the classical implementation, their method can distinguish more accurately between factors and non-factors of large numbers. Specifically, their quantum system could increase the accuracy of a classical algorithm called the Gauss sum algorithm, a technique pioneered by Wolfgang Shleich of Ulm University in Germany.Their quantum system consists of thousands of rubidium-87 atoms that are cooled to near absolute zero to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). At such a low temperature, the atoms’ wavelengths increase and overlap, so that the cluster becomes a single quantum state and obeys quantum laws, yet has a relatively large size. The physicists zapped the BEC with a brief light pulse composed of two counter-propagating beams. They programmed one beam to have phase jumps (to displace the beam’s wavelength), while the second beam had no phase jumps. Programming the first beam served as the input method, representing an integer to be factored. (PhysOrg.com) — Theoretically, quantum computing has the potential to work more efficiently and accurately than classical computing for certain processes, such as factoring. But quantum methods are experimentally challenging, since they often require tiny, fragile systems that are difficult to handle. An absorption image of the expanding Bose-Einstein condensate, demonstrating the diffraction pattern which constitutes the factoring signal. Image credit: Mark Sadgrove, et al. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The dynamics of the atoms subject to the pulse could then be used to perform factoring calculations. After applying the pulse, the researchers allowed the BEC to expand freely for 14 ms. They then took an absorption image of the BEC, which showed that the pulse had separated the atoms in the BEC into different momentum orders. The atoms formed a diffraction pattern, based on the relative number of atoms in each momentum order, which the physicists could interpret as the “factoring signal.” Specifically, high-momentum atoms represented factors, and low-momentum atoms represented non-factors.“You can think of the laser beam as containing the software (encoded by phase jumps) and the atoms as providing the hardware (their natural dynamics in response to the light field is what actually calculates the Gauss sum),” Sadgrove explained.In contrast to the usual Gauss sum, which is fundamentally limited in its accuracy, the quantum method significantly outperformed the classical method, in some cases doubling the atomic visibility and offering near-perfect factoring. “In our case, our current method is still slow – it doesn’t make factoring easy,” Sadgrove said. “What we showed is that quantum mechanics offers an unexpected improvement to the Gauss sum method, overcoming a fundamental accuracy limit. If the atoms behaved classically, there would be no enhancement.”The researchers noted that the higher accuracy comes at a cost of requiring more atoms, so the quantum method’s efficiency is about the same as that of the classical method. Nonetheless, as Sadgrove explained, the method offers a novel experiment in a field in which experiments are difficult to realize.“You might know that everyone doing research in quantum information is excited about [Peter] Shor’s algorithm for quantum factoring,” Sadgrove said. “Shor found a remarkable way to factor numbers using the quantum properties of interference and entanglement, which offers amazing savings in the time it takes for factoring a number. But Shor’s algorithm is hard to implement. It’s only been done successfully for up to the number 15 at the moment, and some people don’t even consider that to be a real test due to some details about the way the algorithm works. So that’s the current state of play regarding quantum factoring.”He added that researchers continue to investigate Shor’s algorithm because of its potential impact on security: “In terms of applications, there’s just one, but it’s very important. If you could do real quantum factoring, then the RSA encryption used to do secure transactions in public situations would be no good anymore. That’s because it relies on the fact that factoring large numbers is a hard problem. But quantum factoring makes it easy.”In the future, the physicists hope to use entangled systems as a factoring method, which they say the present scheme is ideally suited for. They also plan to investigate the use of multiple, correlated atomic ensembles to perform factoring of different integers simultaneously. “We would also like to extend the method beyond factoring,” Sadgrove said. “We can actually compute general ‘exponential sums’ with this method. A Gauss sum is a simple example of an exponential sum, as is a Fourier transform, which can be used to extract information about a signal. These so called ‘exponential sums’ are intricately tied to the most interesting parts of number theory, such as the distribution of prime numbers, which is still unknown. We think there may be other powerful applications of exponential sums apart from factoring.”More information: Sadgrove, Mark; Kumar, Sanjay; and Nakagawa, Ken’ichi. “Enhanced Factoring with a Bose-Einstein Condensate.” Physical Review Letters, 101, 180502 (2008).Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Physicists use Bose-Einstein condensates to enhance factoring algorithm (2008, November 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-11-physicists-bose-einstein-condensates-factoring-algorithm.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Artificial trees. Image: Institution of Mechanical Engineers The engineers from Britain’s Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IME) have asked their government for an investment of 10 million pounds (around 16.3 million dollars) in these ideas to counter the threat to Britain posed by global warming. One of the authors of the report, Dr Tim Fox, said geo-engineering techniques could buy us a few extra years’ breathing space while we transition to a low-carbon world, and may help ward off the climate change scenarios we fear. The report claimed global temperatures could rise by as much as 6°C in the next 90 years if we don’t act soon, and the results would include major refugee movements as well as food and water shortages. Algae-coated buildings. Image: Institution of Mechanical Engineers One proposal was the building of forests of artificial trees. Each synthetic tree could capture up to 10 tons of CO2 a day, which is thousands of times more than a real tree. Each tree would cost around $24,400, and a forest of 100,000 of them could be constructed within the next couple of decades using existing technologies. A forest that size would be able to remove 60% of the UK’s total CO2 emissions. Globally, forests of five to ten million trees could absorb all the CO2 from sources other than power plants.The trees would have a special synthetic filter that absorbs carbon dioxide. When the filters had absorbed their load of CO2 they would be replaced with new filters and the old ones would be stored in empty gas and oil reservoirs, such as depleted oil wells in the North Sea. The trees are already at the prototype stage and their design is well-advanced. The prototype is the size of an average shipping container.Another proposal put forward by the study was to install transparent tubes filled with algae on the outside of buildings. The “algae based photobioreactors”, as they call them, would absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and could later be turned into charcoal, which could then be buried to trap the carbon dioxide. Reflective buildings. Image: Institution of Mechanical Engineers (PhysOrg.com) — A new study on how technology could help to regulate climate change has studied hundreds of ideas, and selected three considered practical and able to be implemented quickly. The report’s authors propose the construction of forests of artificial trees and installing tubes of algae on the sides of buildings to absorb carbon dioxide. They also proposed painting the roofs of buildings white to keep the Earth cool by reducing the amount of solar radiation absorbed. Explore further Citation: Forests of Artificial Trees Could Slow Global Warming (2009, August 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-08-forests-artificial-trees-global.html The third idea proposed by the IME was to paint city roofs white to reflect sunlight back into space and prevent it warming the Earth. Cities can be up to 4°C hotter than suburban areas, and reflective roofs could reduce the need for cooling and save up to 60% of a building’s energy use.Dr Fox warned that geo-engineering ideas such as those proposed are not a silver bullet that will solve all the problems, and they would need to be used in conjunction with other measures such as reducing our emissions and adapting to changes in the climate.More information: Read the full Institution of Mechanical Engineers report© 2009 PhysOrg.com Plant a tree and save the Earth?
Citation: ‘Giraffe of the Mesozoic’ Discovered (2009, September 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-09-giraffe-mesozoic.html Explore further Aussie museum displays huge dinosaur bones (PhysOrg.com) — A creature dubbed a “Giraffe of the Mesozoic” has been discovered in China. The animal, with its giraffe-like long neck and long forelimbs is the first well-preserved Early Cretaceous brachiosaurid dinosaur to be discovered in Asia. It lived about 100 million years ago. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Brachiosaurs were herbivorous dinosaurs belonging to the sauropod family, but in comparison to some brachiosaurs, the new species, Qiaowanlong kangxii, is quite small, at only around 10 feet tall and close to 40 feet long. It weighed a mere 10 tons.The new brachiosaur specimen was described by authors Hai-Lu You and Da-Qing Li, in a paper published online on 4 September 2009, in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The brachiosaur was given the scientific name Qiaowanlong kangxii from Qiao (bridge), wan (bend in a stream), long (dragon), in reference to the area where it was found, and Kangxi, a Qing Dynasty Emperor who is supposed to have dreamt about the scenic Qiaowan region.The specimen was found in the Yujingzi Basin in Gansu Province in North West China, at an excavation site in which many other dinosaur fossils have been found in recent years, including at least three new species.Earlier studies into sauropods suggested the animals held their necks straight out, and swung them from side to side, rather like a metal detector, but the Chinese scientists found the brachiosaur skeleton had a similar bifurcated (two-part) spine to those in other sauropods, but not previously found in brachiosaurs. The bifurcated spine and the structure of the other bones discovered, including a unique pelvis, suggest the neck “should have been held aloft, with a more vertical than horizontal behavior,” according to Hai-Lu You. Having long forelimbs and a long neck held aloft, would have made it look a little like today’s giraffes, and like them, the brachiosaur would have grazed vegetation high above the reach of its competitors for food.Sauropods were thought to have been most populous in the Jurassic in Africa and North America, but some paleontologists have theorized their population declined rapidly early in the Cretaceous period. The new finding casts doubt on this theory, since a growing number of Early Cretaceous sauropods is being discovered in China.Dr Jerry Harris, Dixie State College’s Director of Paleontology, who worked with the Chinese scientists, explained that what makes the discovery so important is how it adds to our knowledge about how dinosaur populations could move around the globe in the Early Cretaceous period. Land bridges between the continents were vanishing at this time, but as the new brachiosaur has similarities to dinosaur remains found in North America, Harris suggests some connections did still exist if only sporadically. The dinosaurs took advantage of the land bridges to move around, which explains why Chinese and American brachiosaurs appear to be closely related.More information: The first well-preserved Early Cretaceous brachiosaurid dinosaur in Asia; Hai-Lu You, Da-Qing Li; Proceedings of the Royal Society B; doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1278© 2009 PhysOrg.com
A Pallas’s long-tongued bat, representing one of six species used in the new study. Bat researchers from the biology departments of the University of Western Ontario and the University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Ca) theorized that the amount of ethanol in the fermented fruit and nectars that the bats ingested was likely to induce intoxication.The researchers gave “sobriety tests” to 106 bats, representing six species of New World Leaf-nosed bats, after the bats had consumed enough ethanol to bring their blood alcohol content (BAC) up to 0.3 or higher. (The legal limit of BAC for human drivers is .08!) The bat BAC levels were attained by feeding the test bats ethanol mixed with sugar water. Their control group counterparts received just the plain sugar water.The bats took flight in a researcher-constructed obstacle course in which the bats would have to navigate according to five standard identifiable flying behaviors of phyllostomide bats. Otherwise, they would betray their drunkenness. Additionally, the biologists expected the alcohol to alter the bats’ echolation, or calling behavior, so they recorded the bats with ultrasonic condenser microphones.”We went into the study fully expecting that some of the species wouldn’t be able to hold their drink,” study co-author Brock Fenton, from the University of Western Ontario, told National Geographic News.But once the bats went through the test – some, mind you, with three times higher BAC than a drunk driver – the researchers found no measurable change in either flight or calling behaviors. A prior study conducted with Old World bats dieting on seasonal fruit and nectar reported signs that bat motor skills and echolation were clearly affected by the ethanol content in their diets. Apparently, the New World bats, exposed to high-ethanol products all year round, have developed an alcohol tolerance that has “afforded them an evolutionary edge.” Fenton and his colleagues are now trying “to find a company that sells alcoholic refreshments who will sponsor an expanded study.” (PhysOrg.com) — New World Leaf-nosed bats (Chiroptera Phyllostomidae) are thriving in the tropical forests of Central and South America, even though their diets consist of more fruits and nectars than their counterparts in the Old World. Strange thing is the phyllostomide bats are drawn to fruits and nectars even after they have fermented. More information: Drinking and Flying: Does Alcohol Consumption Affect the Flight and Echolocation Performance of Phyllostomid Bats? Citation: Orbach DN, Veselka N, Dzal Y, Lazure L, Fenton MB (2010) Drinking and Flying: Does Alcohol Consumption Affect the Flight and Echolocation Performance of Phyllostomid Bats? PLoS ONE 5(2): e8993. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008993 Study looks at metal baseball bat safety © 2010 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Citation: Drunk Bats Manage To Pass Sobriety Tests (2010, February 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-02-drunk-sobriety.html
3. Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.Following Itskov’s keynote on the first day of the Congress, the late Dr. James Martin, who tragically passed away on June 24, 2013, gave a sweeping, engaging talk on The Transformation of Humankind—Extreme Paradigm Shifts Are Ahead of Us. An incredibly prolific author of books on computing and related technology, Dr. Martin founded the Oxford Martin School at Oxford University – an interdisciplinary research community comprising over 30 institutes and projects addressing the most pressing global challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Dr. Martin – in the highly engaging manner for which he was renowned – presented a remarkably accessible survey of the interdependent trends that will increasingly threaten humanity over the coming decades. Dr. Martin made it disturbingly clear that population growth, resource consumption, water depletion, desertification, deforestation, ocean pollution and fish depopulation, atmospheric carbon dioxide, what he termed gigafamine (the death of more than a billion people as a consequence of food shortage by mid-century), and other factors are ominously close to their tipping points – after which their effects will be irreversible. (For example, he points out that in 20 years we’ll be consuming an obviously unsustainable 200 percent of then-available resources.) Taken together, he cautioned, these developments will constitute a “perfect storm” that will cause a Darwinian survival of the fittest in which “the Earth could be like a lifeboat that’s too small to save everyone.” However, Dr. Martin also emphasized that there are solutions discussing the trends and technologies that – even as he acknowledged the resistance to implementing or even understanding them – could have a positive impact on our future:The Singularity and an emerging technocracyGenetic engineering and Transhumanism, in particular, a synthetic 24th human chromosome that would contain non-inheritable genetic modifications and synthetic DNA sequences Artificial Intelligence and nanoroboticsYottascale computers capable of executing 1024 operations per secondQuantum computingGraphene – a one-atom thick layer of graphite with an ever-expanding portfolio of electronic, optical, excitonic, thermal, mechanical, and quantum properties, and an even longer list of potential applicationsAutonomous automobilesNuclear batteries in the form of small, ultra-safe and maintenance-free underground Tokamak nuclear fusion reactorsPhotovoltaics that make electricity more cheaply than coal Capturing rainwater and floodwater to increase water supplyEco-influence – Dr. Martin’s term for a rich, enjoyable and sometimes complex way of life that does no ecological harm”We’re capable of creating a future which is enormously better than the present we live in today,” Dr. Martin said. “What I’m doing is trying to make that happen, as far as one person can.” His words, legacy and generosity of spirit are how we all must remember him. Process flow schematic for the nanofabrication of 64 channel silicon neural probes. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026204 PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen As many Phys.org readers undoubtedly know, Einstein famously said that imagination is more important than knowledge – but there’s more to it. Dr. Peter H. Diamandis: We are evolving into meta-intelligence group-minds. Courtesy of GF2045 Avatars, androids and robotics were much-discussed topics at GF2045, and these intersected in the presentation given by Dr. Hiroshi Ishiguro, Director of the Intelligent Robotics Laboratory in Osaka, Japan, The Future Life Supported by Robotic Avatars. Ishiguro creates human-like robots rich in features that support effective relationships with humans. In particular, his Geminoid Teleoperated Androids are based on his research into the experience of presence – the feeling of human existence on our physical proximity and interactions – and the capability to transfer or reproduce the human presence through technology. (In fact, in his talk Ishiguro described how he often sends his personal Geminoid HI-2 to remote locations, allowing him to teach classes, give lectures and attend meetings via telepresence.) In addition to the highly photorealistic, lifelike Geminoid, Ishiguro has developed many other humanoids and androids, including Robovie, Repliee, Telenoid, and Elfoid. Russian tycoon wants to move mind to machine Play Dr. Hiroshi Ishiguro and Geminoid HI-2. Copyright (C) ATR Hiroshi Ishiguro Laboratory Journal information: PLoS ONE Dr. Natasha Vita-More: Body by Design. Courtesy of GF2045 “These three challenges offer a new perspective on how we consider concepts such as what is natural to be human and how far we can go in human enhancement in order to still be a person,” Vita-More continues. “Also, it objectifies the body as a sensory-adept transportation and communication system for the brain and mind. However, before my concept of a whole-body prosthetic system is less threatening to society, there needs to be more awareness of the need for prosthetics replacement parts for the body and the extreme need for organ transplants, and that in order to preserve human well-being, we need to provide sufficient knowledge to the public these requirements. In other words” she adds, “we have to be aware that if we want to be healthy and protect ourselves from the damages of disease, we need to protect our biological bodies and be as healthy as possible for as long as possible – and if we want to continue living, we might bet benefit from opting for technological advances in the development of my vision of a whole-body networked prosthetic.”Vita-More emphasizes that addressing these challenges will require significant scientific, technological, cultural, and other developments, including greater advances in neuroscience, cognitive science, information technology, and human-computer interaction. “In other words” she says, “the body is a necessary component of personal identity – as our transportation vehicle and our sensory system – that provides data to the brain in order to be a sentient and sapient being. However,” she cautions, “science and technology are only part of the puzzle. Design is essential because its function or purpose is to identify and solve problems – a process known as need-finding.”The second aspect of design, Vita-More continues, “is to resolve the need in an iterative process until a viable outcome is developed, followed by iteratively testing that outcome. In a sense,” she notes, “design is never fully completed or finished. Rather, it can be seen as a work in progress that continues to take advantage of new tools and methods.”That said, Vita-More notes that there are two immediate developments needed to address the challenges of designing and building platform-diverse bodies that benefit from semi- and non-biological devices implanted or wearable systems: how to backup the brain and transfer it into these bodies, and how to present this idea to society so that it is understood as a an alternative to a biological body. ‘The central issue is a cultural bias that the person would be a robot or cyborg, which is a misunderstanding of terms. Instead,” she concludes, “the person would be a transitional human – still a humane, empathic, passionate person – but not 100% biological.”Towards that end, Vita-More is creating a transdisciplinary Human Enhancement Design (HED) educational program, that explores biotechnology and genomics, nanotechnology and nanomedicine, information technology and Artificial General Intelligence, robotics and smart prosthetics, neuroscience and cognitive sciences, consciousness studies and ethics, and other areas that pertain to issues of backing up the brain and whole body prosthetics. Moreover, as an ecological system comprising humans and the environment, HED explores ways to improve our relationship with the environment, extend lifespan, and map the future of human-computer interface devices. Dr. Hiroshi Ishiguro: Robot Science Made in Japan. Courtesy of Japan Society The development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) to allow paralyzed individuals to control various external prosthetic devices, such as a remote robotic arm, was another key topic at GF2045. UC Berkeley researchers Dr. Jose Carmena (Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Neuroscience, Co-Director of the recently-launched multidisciplinary Center for Neural Engineering and Prostheses, and Principal Investigator at the Brain-Machine Interface Systems Laboratory) and Dr. Michel Maharbiz (Associate Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Co-Director of the Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center, and member of the Center for Neural Engineering and Prostheses) addressed this topic in their joint presentation, Brain Control of Prosthetic Devices: The Road Ahead. A very recent example of the BCI research Carmena and Maharbiz discussed is Neural Dust: An Ultrasonic, Low Power Solution for Chronic Brain-Machine Interfaces3, a theoretical pre-print paper by Maharbiz, Carmena, lead author Dongjin Seo, Jan M. Rabaey, and Elad Alon published in July 2013. The paper proposes neural dust – thousands of ultra-miniaturized, free-floating, independent sensor nodes that detect and report local extracellular electrophysiological data – with neural dust power and communication links established through a subcranial interrogator. With the purpose being to enable “massive scaling in the number of neural recordings from the brain while providing a path towards truly chronic BMI,” the researchers’ goal is “an implantable neural interface system that remains viable for a lifetime.” The paper explores “the fundamental system design trade-offs and ultimate size, power, and bandwidth scaling limits of neural recording systems built from low-power CMOS circuitry coupled with ultrasonic power delivery and backscatter communication.” Dr. Michel Maharbiz: Complete single interrogator, single neural dust power and communication through link models. Source: arXiv:1307.2196v1 To accelerate their work, GENI Lab is running a crowdfunding campaign to secure additional support using Indiegogo as their crowdfunding platform. “We chose Indiegogo,” Goertzel points out, “because it’s a big-time, recognizable brand, but provides more flexibility in how you structure and manage your campaign than other crowdfunding engines.” He adds that their Indiegogo project has already been mentioned on KurzweilAI, Next Big Future and other sites – and that Adam Z1 and an updated DeSTIN paper10 to be presented at the Sixth Conference on Artificial General Intelligence (AGI-13) at Peking University on July 31 – August 3, 2013.When considering the emergence of powerful human-like Artificial General Intelligence that may well evolve its own emotional responses and values, an important and hotly-debated question is whether or not it is possible – and if so, how – to create ethical machines. In Making Minds Morally: the Research Ethics of Brain Emulation, Dr. Anders Sandberg – a Computational Neuroscientist, and James Martin Research Fellow at the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University, and Research Associate at the Oxford Neuroethics Center – addressed the social and ethical impact of cognitive enhancement and whole brain emulation. “We want to get to the future,” Sandberg said in his talk, “but that implies that the future had better be a good place. Otherwise, there wouldn’t be a point in getting there – but that would mean in turn that the methods we’re going to use to get to the future had better be good as well.” Sandberg went on to describe his approach of being ethically proactive as it applies to the 2045 Avatar Project and questions of death and identity. 64 channel silicon-based neural probes with nanoscale leads. (A–C) Three configurations of probes. Scale bars, 200 mm. (D) Gold recording sites and nanoscale leads, patterned with e-beam lithography. The lead width ranges from 1000 nm at the top left-hand corner, to 290 nm at the bottom right-hand corner of the image. Scale bar, 50 mm. (E) A section of interconnecting leads belonging to the ‘‘honeycomb’’ array configuration displayed in (A) and (D). The narrowest traces have width and spacing of 290 nm. Scale bar, 5 mm. (F) Characteristic chisel-shaped profile of the probes resulting from deep reactive ion etching of silicon. Scale bar, 25 mm. (G) Silicon device cross-section. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026204 Dr. Michel Maharbiz: Neural dust system diagram showing the placement of ultrasonic interrogator under the skull and the independent neural dust sensing nodes dispersed throughout the brain. Source: arXiv:1307.2196v1 Maharbiz also contributed to the implementation and engineering of an inspired BCI project at the Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center, A Modular System for High-Density, Multi-Scale Electrophysiology – the brainchild of Tim Blanche, Investigator at the Allen Institute for Brain Science and previously at Redwood Center for Neuroscience. Based on Multiplexed, High Density Electrophysiology with Nanofabricated Neural Probes4, the project is intended to advance both fundamental neuroscience research and development of next-generation neural prosthetic devices. Based on the elusive goal of large-scale electrophysiology simultaneous recording of thousands of individual neurons in multiple brain areas, the project will establish a complete system for multi-scale electrophysiology in awake, freely behaving mice, using state-of-the-art nano/neural interfaces comprising tiny silicon probes integrated with on-chip optical waveguides and compliant monolithic polymer cables connected a unique lightweight head-mounted recording system, based on a custom Application-Specific Integrated Circuit, that will perform electrophysiological recording, signal amplification, filtering, signal multiplexing, and digital sampling on a single chip. Moreover, this technology will allow optogenetic neuronal excitation/inhibition and the recording of large ensembles of individual neurons in many different brain regions to be simultaneously performed. Copyright © GENI Lab Walking the talk of prosthetic augmentation, Nigel Ackland, who lost his right arm in a metals smelting accident in 2006, described (in his first time speaking in public) his experience with the bebionic3 myoelectric prosthetic hand manufactured (and supplied to Ackland at no cost) by RSLSteeper in England. Ackland – whose moving and engaging talk received a well-deserved standing ovation – said that the loss of his arm left him feeling that it was “game over,” but added that having worn the bebionic3 for about a year, his life had now become “extraordinary.” Ackland then demonstrated some of the bebionic3’s features and functions, which were indeed remarkable. Citation: The world according to Itskov: Futurists convene at GF2045 (Part 1) (2013, August 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-08-world-itskov-futurists-convene-gf2045.html Nigel Ackland: ‘Terminator’ false arm ties shoelace and deals cards. Courtesy of RSLSteeper Although Dr. Ben Goertzel, leading Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) Researcher and Founder of the OpenCog AGI project5,6, and Robotics Designer & Researcher Dr. David Hanson were scheduled to introduce GENI Lab and the Adam Z1 Genius Machine intelligent robot project at GF2045, their talk unfortunately encountered a scheduling conflict. However, Goertzel and Hanson were in attendance at the conference and were able to informally discuss their work with many attendees, and briefly present Adam Z1 to some, after the conference. The GENI Lab team – Goertzel, Hanson, Robotics Physicist Mark Tilden, and Consciousness and Design Researcher Gino Yu – are focused on creating and broadly disseminating intelligent robots, and conducting R&D aimed ultimately at the production of robots with greater-than-human consciousness, creativity, and compassion. A non-profit organization, GENI Lab embraces open source, open standards, and open collaboration to integrate adaptive intelligence, social and emotional interaction, and life-like mechanical controls and bodies. GENI Lab’s central medium-term goal is the creation of a life-sized humanoid robot with a realistic, emotional face and personality a fluidly moving body, based on the integration of analog, digital and mechanical control the ability to communicate about its physical environment and its tasks and behaviors therein the capability of simple but socially and emotionally appropriate communication in natural language Their short-term work with Adam Z1 and other robots is being pursued in the interest of this goal. The core adaptive general intelligence technology underlying GENI Lab robots rests largely on. Goertzel’s OpenCog architecture, and integrates the Hanson Robotics APIs and the DeSTIN machine vision system (initially developed at University of Tennessee at Knoxville by Itamar Arel7). “For example,” Goertzel told Phys.org, “our pattern recognition software identifies patterns in DeSTIN’s interpretation of visual scenes observed by a robot’s camera, and feeds these patterns into OpenCog.”A key aspect of GENI Lab’s approach is overcoming the limitations of current robotics technology by creating robots that elicit rich social and emotional interactions from humans. “To this end,” Goertzel says, “we overhauled OpenCog’s motivational and emotional system, creating a new system called OpenPsi8,9 gives OpenCog a more human-like emotional makeup.” (OpenPsi is modeled on Joscha Bach’s MicroPsi AI system, which is based on German psychologist Dietrich Dörner’s Psi model of mind.)In essence, Goertzel notes, Adam Z1 will be unique on two ways. “Internally, he will be the first robot that integrates deep learning- based visual perception with symbolic logical reasoning. Behaviorally, our main goal is for him to engage in creative social play like a young child. A good example would be: If you ask him to “Build me something I haven’t seen before,” he would remember what he’d seen you see, and then build you something different, While a smart three year old could accomplish this seemingly simple task – which integrates visual perception, movement, theory of mind and social interaction, and planning – no robot today can. “Further down the road,” he adds, “we would like the robot to be the first one to pass the standard preschool IQ test without any special test-specific training.”Within this framework, Goertzel continues, there are many R&D challenges to address. “One of these challenges is to successfully get vision and audition received from the robot sensors to work effectively with OpenCog’s symbolic reasoning. Another is doing natural language comprehension effectively via speech input – and given the mediocre state of current speech-to-text software, the system will have to use its emerging cognitive understanding to compensate for the ambiguities and errors in the output of speech to text software. A third challenge is optimizing the OpenCog core system for real-time processing at the speed needed for intelligent robot control, given that the robotics context involves a lot more data than the virtual-agent context we’ve mostly been dealing with lately.”The robot Adam Z1, as designed by Hanson (a former Disney sculptor and Imagineer), is cute in a toy-like sense, rather than having a more human appearance. “We did this to remain on the right side of the so-called Uncanny Valley – that is, to appeal to human emotions without creeping anyone out,” Goertzel explains. “Also, its intelligence is going to be human-like rather than precisely human, so it seems appropriate that its appearance has the same quality.” © 2013 Phys.org. All rights reserved. Explore further The full quote reads: I believe in intuition and inspiration. … At times I feel certain I am right while not knowing the reason. When the eclipse of 1919 confirmed my intuition, I was not in the least surprised. In fact I would have been astonished had it turned out otherwise. Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution. It is, strictly speaking, a real factor in scientific research.1 Futurists, visionaries, scientists, technologists, philosophers, and others who take this view to heart convened on June 15-16, 2013 in New York City at Global Futures 2045 International Congress: Towards a New Strategy for Human Evolution. GF2045 was organized by the 2045 Strategic Social Initiative founded by Russian entrepreneur Dmitry Itskov in February 2011 with the main goals of creating and realizing a new strategy for the development of humanity – one based upon our unique emerging capability to effect self-directed evolution. The initiative’s two main science projects are focused largely on Transhumanism – a multidisciplinary approach to analyzing the dynamic interplay between humanity and the acceleration of technology. Specifically, the 2045 Initiative’s projects seek to (1) enable an individual’s personality to be transferred to a more advanced non-biological substrate, and (2) extend life to the point of immortality – and those skeptical about the likelihood of achieving these goals should consider Arthur C. Clarke’s laws of prediction2: 1. When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is very probably wrong. 2. The only way of discovering the limits of the possible is to venture a little way past them into the impossible. Dr. Anders Sandberg: What kind of humanity should we want to make? Courtesy of TEDxTalks Dr. Natasha Vita-More, designer and author, professor at the University of Advancing Technology, and currently Chairman of Transhumanist organization Humanity+, presented her vision of building platform-diverse bodies that could be mind-driven avatars for parlaying our personas within computational systems and telepresence in Substrate Autonomous, Networked Avatar Bodies by Design. “The three biggest challenges to implementing my vision for Bodies by Design are located within the complex sphere of social awareness,” Vita-More tells Phys.org. Specifically, she explains, these are the beliefs that the human body should be strictly biological; the brain will not, at some point, be backed up and transferable to a non-biological bodily system; and if a brain were backed up and transferred to a non-biological bodily system, it would be the same identity or person as the biological system. “To this end,” she adds, “I think that within the next five years we will see academic courses focused on the Transhumanist worldview, on my work and research in whole-body prosthetics, and significant competition amongst engineers and designers building whole-body prosthetics. In addition, anyone who wants to contribute to Bodies by Design can contact me at Natasha Vita-More Projects.” More information: The world according to Itskov: Futurists convene at GF2045 (Part 2)1Cosmic Religion: With Other Opinions and Aphorisms (1931) by Albert Einstein; also in Einstein on Cosmic Religion and Other Opinions and Aphorisms (2009) by Albert Einstein (Kindle version) 2Hazards of Prophecy: The Failure of Imagination in the collection Profiles of the Future: An Enquiry into the Limits of the Possible (1962, rev. 1973, this edition published 2000) 3Neural Dust: An Ultrasonic, Low Power Solution for Chronic Brain-Machine Interfaces, arXiv:1307.2196v1 (PDF) 4Multiplexed, High Density Electrophysiology with Nanofabricated Neural Probes, PLoS ONE 6(10): e26204 (2011), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026204 (PDF) 5OpenCog: A Software Framework for Integrative Artificial General Intelligence, Proceedings, AGI-08, Memphis 6OpenCogBot: Achieving Generally Intelligent Virtual Agent Control and Humanoid Robotics via Cognitive Synergy, Proceedings, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ICAI) 2010, Beijing (PDF) 7DeSTIN: A Scalable Deep Learning Architecture with Application to High-Dimensional Robust Pattern Recognition, Proc. AAAI 2009 Fall Symposium on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures (BICA), November, 2009 8OpenPsi: Realizing Dörner’s “Psi” Cognitive Model in the OpenCog Integrative AGI Architecture 9Dynamics of a computational affective model inspired by Dörner’s PSI theory, Cognitive Systems Research, v.17-18, 2012 July-August, p.63(18), doi:10.1016/j.cogsys.2011.11.002 10Integrating Deep Learning Based Perception with Probabilistic Logic via Frequent Pattern Mining Mark Tilden, Ben Goertzel, David Hanson, Adam Z1. Caption: Copyright © GENI Lab Dr. James Martin: A crunch is coming. Courtesy of GF2045 Perhaps the epitome of that act of creation is our emerging ability to direct our own evolution. Dr. Peter H. Diamandis, founder and chairman of the X PRIZE Foundation and author of Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Think, addressed the long-term implications of this game-changing transition in his talk on Intelligent Self-directed Evolution Guides Mankind’s Metamorphosis Into An Immortal Planetary Meta-intelligence. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Explore further More information: via Forbes Daniel G. Nocera. Credit: Courtesy of Daniel G. Nocera (Phys.org)—Harvard Chemist Daniel Nocera has announced during a lecture at the Energy Policy Institute in Chicago, that he and his colleagues have engineered a bacterium that has made it capable of taking in carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and excreting several types of alcohol fuels, along with biomass that can be burned and used as an energy source. During the talk, he claimed that a paper he and his colleagues have written regarding the work will soon be published in the journal Science. Bionic leaf: Researchers use bacteria to convert solar energy into liquid fuel Citation: Engineered bacterium inhales carbon dioxide and hydrogen and excretes fuel alcohols (2016, May 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-05-bacterium-inhales-carbon-dioxide-hydrogen.html © 2016 Phys.org Nocera achieved a level of notoriety five years ago, when he and his team announced that they had created an artificial leaf that could be used to generate hydrogen for use as a fuel—that idea did not lead to hydrogen fuel cells displacing gasoline in automobiles, as he had hoped, so this go round, he has set his sights or providing a fuel source for those more in need—parts of India where there is still no electricity.The new bacterium, which has been named Ralston eutropha was first caused (via genetic engineering) to take in carbon dioxide and hydrogen, which it used to produce adenosine triphosphate, as is done with plants. The team then took the work further by applying techniques pioneered by Anthony Sinskey to cause the bacterium to then convert the ATP to various types of alcohols (isopentanol, isobutanol, isopropanol) which were then excreted. Nocera claimed that when the bacterium was allowed to reproduce, clusters of them were capable of producing alcohols at 6 percent efficiency and biomass at 10.6 percent efficiency, (plants in comparison are approximately 1 percent efficient at converting sunlight and carbon dioxide into biomass).Noting that some might see masses of such bacteria pulling carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as a possible solution to reducing global warming, which is believed to be at least partly caused by an excess of the gas in the atmosphere, Nocera suggested that was not the most likely outcome—he envisions people in need burning the alcohol and biomass as a fuel source, which would of course return the carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere—making it a carbon-neutral resource. He finished his lecture by announcing that he and his team are currently looking for investors to bring the technology to parts of India where it is so badly needed. Journal information: Science This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
© 2016 Phys.org Citation: Two super-Earth-sized planets discovered orbiting a nearby star (2016, July 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-07-super-earth-sized-planets-orbiting-nearby-star.html (Phys.org)—NASA’s Kepler spacecraft continues its fruitful exoplanet hunt with the newest discovery of two super-Earth-sized alien worlds. The newly detected planets are orbiting a nearby sun-sized star known as HD 3167, located some 150 light years away. The results are presented in a paper published July 18 on the arXiv pre-print server. Explore further K2 light curve of HD 3167. Top: the full K2 light curve. Both the numerous, shallow transits of HD 3167 b and three deeper transits of HD 3167 c are evident in the light curve by eye. Bottom left: K2 light curve (grey dots) phase folded on the transits of HD 3167 b, and best-fit transit model (thick purple line). Bottom right: K2 light curve (grey dots) phase folded on the transits of HD 3167 c, and best-fit transit model (thick purple line). Credit: Vanderburg et al., 2016. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. New system discovered with five planets More information: Two Small Planets Transiting HD 3167, arXiv:1607.05248 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1607.05248AbstractWe report the discovery of two super-Earth-sized planets transiting the bright (V = 8.94, K = 7.07) nearby late G-dwarf HD 3167, using data collected by the K2 mission. The inner planet, HD 3167 b, has a radius of 1.6 R_e and an ultra-short orbital period of only 0.96 days. The outer planet, HD 3167 c, has a radius of 2.9 R_e and orbits its host star every 29.85 days. At a distance of just 45.8 +/- 2.2 pc, HD 3167 is one of the closest and brightest stars hosting multiple transiting planets, making HD 3167 b and c well suited for follow-up observations. The star is chromospherically inactive and slowly rotating, ideal for radial velocity observations to measure the planets’ masses. The outer planet is large enough that it likely has a thick gaseous envelope which could be studied via transmission spectroscopy. Planets transiting bright, nearby stars like HD 3167 are valuable objects to study leading up to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope. Although Kepler has lost two of its four reaction wheels and therefore cannot be precisely pointed toward stars, it is still capable of detecting new exoworlds. The spacecraft is now in its extended mission, known as K2, during which it has already found over 100 new planets. The HD 3167 system is just the latest addition to the vast collection of extrasolar worlds detected by K2.HD 3167 was observed by Kepler between January 3 and March 23, 2016 during Campaign 8 of its K2 mission. This observation campaign allowed a team of astronomers, led by Andrew Vanderburg of the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), to detect two transit signals that could be planets circling around this nearby star.”We identified two planet candidates transiting HD 3167 after processing pixel-level data to produce a light curve, removing systematic effects due to Kepler’s unstable pointing, and searching for planets using a Box Least Squares periodogram search,” the researchers wrote in the paper.To confirm the planetary status of these candidates, the team conducted follow-up observations employing the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5 m telescope at the Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona and the Robo-AO adaptive optics system installed at the 2.1 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, also in Arizona. They also used statistical techniques to validate the planetary nature of the transiting signals.The confirmed exoplanets received designation HD 3167 b and HD 3167 c. With a radius of about 1.6 Earth radii, HD 3167 b is the inner planet, orbiting the host star in just slightly less than one day. The outer planet is nearly three times bigger in size than Earth and has an orbital period of approximately 30 days.HD 3167 could be an excellent target for further follow-up observations as it is one of the closest and brightest stars hosting multiple transiting planets. The scientists noted that this system is highly suitable for precise radial velocity observations to measure the planets’ masses.”If HD 3167 b is rocky with a mass of about four Earth masses, it should induce radial velocity variations with a semiamplitude of about 3 ms−1. Depending on its composition, HD 3167 c could induce radial velocity variations with a semiamplitude of anywhere between 1 ms−1 and 3 ms−1. These signals should be readily detectable with modern spectrographs,” the paper reads.The team also emphasized that the outer planet is one of the best currently known small planets for atmospheric characterization with transit transmission spectroscopy. However, they also noted that the short period of HD 3167 b makes it likely that spectroscopic observations of HD 3167 c’s atmosphere might overlap with a transit of the inner planet.”This could be an efficient way to rule out a hydrogen-dominated atmosphere for HD 3167 b. Observers should be cautious, however, to ensure that a transit of HD 3167 b not interfere with out-of-transit observations necessary for calibration,” the researchers concluded.
The Shiromani Akali Dal on Tuesday said it will contest from four seats in the February 7 Delhi assembly polls, a day after its ally, the BJP, released its list of 62 candidates.“The Shiromani Akali Dal will fight from four seats in Delhi as per the formula of our alliance with the BJP,” Akali Dal Delhi unit president Manjeet Singh GK said.Manjinder Singh Sirsa will be contesting from Rajouri Garden, Harmeet Singh Kalka from Kalkaji and Jitender Singh Shunty from Shahdara. The party left out Shyam Sharma from the Hari Nagar seat and instead chose Avtar Singh Hit. All the three candidates – Sirsa, Kalka and Shunty – had fought the 2013 polls from the same constituencies and won. Sharma, however, had lost from Hari Nagar. Of the four candidates, Sirsa will contest on the Akali Dal’s weighing scale symbol, while the other three candidates will fight on the BJP symbol.
Kolkata: Six persons were killed after being struck by lightning in three separate incidents in the districts of Nadia, Bankura and Howrah. The incident took place on Wednesday morning when a thunder shower lashed various South Bengal districts. Lightning struck four persons including two brothers in Nadia leading to their deaths. While in separate incidents of lightning, two persons were killed in Bankura and Howrah each.According to Nadia police, the victims were all working in a field at Noamile in Nadia on Wednesday morning when the thundershowers started. The victims are Kalachand Seikh (60), Kamal Seikh (50), Najizul Seikh (30) and Azizul Seikh (25). Najizul and Azizul were two bothers. In another incident, a 58-year-old Kartin Soren was ploughing in Bankura’s Sarenga when he was struck by lightning. The third incident occurred in Howrah’s Panchla. The victim has been identified as Urmila Mondal (42) who was returning home from field work. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe district administrations took prompt action to restore normalcy following the incidents. There was heavy rainfall in some districts for hours causing water logging. Some of the roads became inundated. Nadia and Murshidabad witnessed a storm accompanied by moderate to heavy rainfall causing inconvenience to the commuters. It started raining from 11 am in some districts. The rain accompanied by storm, however, provided relief to the people in these districts as it brought down the temperatures by a few notches. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe sky remained overcast in North 24-Parganas, South 24-Parganas and also in the city in the morning hours. The city also received light rainfall on Wednesday morning.According to the weather office, a cyclonic circulation formed over the state that caused rains in the districts. There is also a possibility of thundershowers in the South Bengal districts during the evening in the next few days, the Met department predicted.It may be mentioned here that rain lashed some parts of North 24-Parganas, South 24-Parganas, Nadia, Hooghly and Kolkata on Wednesday evening. The Regional Meteorological Centre in Alipore predicted that it may rain in the city and adjoining areas, accompanied by storm in the next 24 hours. According to a weather expert, a strong moisture-laden wind which is blowing from the sea, turned the conditions favourable for a storm.
The People’s President was as much the Pupils’ President. So the eminent educationist Satyam Roychowdhury has named his latest literary venture as “Pupils’ President – APJ Abdul Kalam”. The 11th President of India, the ‘Missile Man’ behind India’s nuclear power, loved to be recognized as a teacher at the end of the day. Even at the age of 84, he used to travel a lot in and outside the country for delivering lectures at varied educational institutes. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’In fact, he loved interacting with the students, inspiring them not only to